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What is Base Oils and Where is Its Use?

What is Base Oils and Where is Its Use?

Different products require different oils. People use motor oil to prepare and produce lubricating greases and use base oils for metal working fluids too.

If you stay with us until the end, we will provide you with more information about base oil.

One of the most important factors of viscosity is the liquid.

Determinants of the conversion of crude oil to liquid oil include concentration of base oil molecules and their extraction rate.

What Is Base Oil?

People refine crude oil to produce base oil.

Firstly, humans first heat crude oil in order to separate different distillates.

Heavy & light hydrocarbons are separated during this process of each other.

 Humans use light hydrocarbons to produce gasoline and other fuels, and use heavy hydrocarbons to produce bitumen and ideal base oils.

The amount of crude oil is high around the world.

Although naphthenic raw oils can produce products that have better solubility and very good properties at low temperatures, people use paraffin oil too much to produce base oil.

They put a lot of pressure on sulfur and aromatic substances in hydrogenation processes and then remove them to produce pure base oils.

If these materials are high quality, people will use them very much.

What Are the Uses for Lubricants?

  1. Reduce friction between surfaces
  2. Reduce heat when moving surfaces.
  3. Power transmission or transfer of foreign particles or heat or surface cooling.

One of the most important forces is friction.

It prevents the movement of motor components in the wrong place at the wrong time.

Persons use lubricants in the industry very much and use it for different purposes.

Other applications of lubricants include nonstick cooking spray, biomedical applications in humans (like lubricant for prosthetic limbs.), and medical examinations & personal lubricants.

People also use lubricants to reduce friction.

Characteristics of Lubricant Base Oils

Base oil is an excellent lubricant that has unique properties.

The spurs are not produced equally because they require different applications and different properties of lubricants.

Base oil is a good lubricant. The characteristics of this material include high boiling point & low freezing point, high viscosity, thermal stability, hydraulic stability, water release or emulsification capability, corrosion prevention as well as   high resistance to oxidation.

All lubricants have base oil because each lubricant oil is composed of 90% base oil and 10% additives too.

One of the differences between fluids and grease is the thickener.

Individuals can use 30% thickener to produce grease.

Base oils are as follows

  1. Mineral

Persons produce mineral oils from crude oil and its quality depends on the refining process

  1. Vegetable

Individuals call vegetable oils environmental lubricants.

  1. Synthetic

Humans make these materials and they perform better in difficult conditions.

People body lubricants are based on oil, water or silicone.

Non-liquid lubricants include greases, PTFE tapes, air cushions and others.

If persons want to develop certain features in an oil lubricant, they can add additions.

Plugins include antioxidants & detergents, anti-abrasion & corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure & anti-foam agents as well as viscosity index improvers.

Base Oils Groups

The American Petroleum products Institute (API) has divided base oil into 5 groups that people produce the first three groups from crude oil or mineral oil.

Group IV base oils are completely artificial.

The other base oils have group V, which are not in groups I to V.

  • First Group

Less than 90% of them are saturated.

They have over 0.03% sulfur and the viscosity index is SAE 80 to 120.

Their operating temperatures range from 32 to 150 Fahrenheit.

They treat these substances with solvents, so they are easier to purify and also their prices are cheaper.

Ø  Second Group

More than 90% of them are saturated.

They have less than 0.03% sulfur that have V.I and the viscosity index is 80-120.

Most of these oils are hydrocracking, so they are more complex than process refining.

These substances have better antioxidant properties and their color is clearer than the base oils Group I.

  • Third Group


More than 90% of them are saturated.

They have less than 0.03% sulfur and have viscosity above 120.

The process of this type of oil produces a purer base

  • Fourth Group

People introduce them as polyalphaolefin (PAO).

They are synthetic and people produce them through the process of synthesis.

These materials are suitable for cold or excessive heat due to the wide temperature range of PAO.

Ø Fifth Group

People classify silicone, phosphate esters, polyalkylene glycol (PAG), polyester and biolubricant into group V.

Humans mix these oils with base oils to enhance the properties of oil and divide these substances into paraffin, naphthenic and aromatic.

When they want to choose base oil, they need to make sure it’s desirable.

Individuals should pay attention to the temperature range and working conditions because proper lubrication is very important for the maintenance of the equipment.

If persons want to produce base oil, they can check all specifications that the manufacturer offers.

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