They produce base oil through crude oil refining.
People heat crude oil to separate different distillates from it.
Light and heavy hydrocarbons also are separated from each other during this process.
Humans use light hydrocarbons to produce gasoline and other fuels. They also use heavy hydrocarbons to produce bitumen and ideal base oils.
There are different types of crude oil around the world that are used to produce base oil.
Although naphthenic oils produce products with better solubility and excellent properties at low temperatures, paraffin oil is the most common type of crude oil.
If people put hydrogen under high pressure, they can remove sulfur and aromatic substances and produce extremely pure base oils.
Types of Base Oils
The most important liquid lubricants are lubricating oils.
The advantages of these materials include reducing friction and preventing the wear of metal parts.
One of the most important components of lubricating oils is the base oils.
People divide basic oils into three categories. They are as follows:
Mineral Base Oil
It has naphthenic and paraffinic oils. Individuals produce it from crude oil refining.
People use it in machine lubricants. It contains normal hydrocarbons and branched hydrocarbons.
The features of paraffin oils are as follows:
High endurance against oxygen, high drop temperature, low volatility & high flash point as well as low specific gravity.
Humans make it from saturated hydrocarbons.
It is used in low temperature range. The characteristics of naphthenic oils are as follows :
Low resistance to oxidation, having a lower drop point due to lack of wax, better solubility and higher relative density, lower viscosity index, higher volatility as well as lower flash point.
Synthetic Base Oil
People react two or more simple compounds together to produce synthetic base oil. It also has essential additives.
If they use base feed in a molecular regeneration process, they can produce synthetic lubricant.
The most important synthetic lubricants are as follows:
Polyglycol fluid, polyalkylene glycols, polyglycol ethers, Polyalkylene glycol ethers, Silicons, esters (Two – factor acid esters), esters (Poly eventide esters), polymerized alpha alfin (poly alpha olefin, olefin polymers, olefin synthetic hydrocarbons), aromatic alkali, diallyl benzenes, a synthetic hydrocarbon as well as phosphate esters.
Natural Base Oils
Humans should pay a lot of attention to natural lubricants because of the increased environmental.
They produce it from plant sources.
Natural oils contain triglycerides. It has long chained carboxylic acids that people know as fatty acids.
The characteristics of natural oils are as follows:
Their application in lubrication and high ignition temperature, more Lubrication Power as well as not enough resistance to oxidation.
Chemical Properties of Base Oil
Volatility, surface activity, Oxidation, Viscosity, Solute power, high boiling point & low freezing point, high viscosity index, thermal stability, hydraulic Stability, emulsification capability, water release, corrosion prevention as well as high resistance to oxidation.
Base Oil in Different Industries
Now, industrial oils have base oils. The American Petroleum Institute (API) divides them into five groups.
The first three groups have mineral oil.
Group IV base oils are completely synthetic.
People use Group V for all other base oils that they are not in groups I to IV.
Base Oils Group 1
The saturation of this type of base oil is less than 90%. It also has more than 0.03 percent sulfur.
The viscosity index ranges of 80 SAE to 120 and has an operating temperature of 32 to 150 Fahrenheit.
Individuals purify the first group base oils with solvent.
The price of these materials is reasonable.
Base Oils of the 2 Group
The saturation of this type of oil is more than 90%. They have less than 0.03 percent sulfur.
It has V.I and also its viscosity is 80 to 120. People produce these types of oils via hydrocracking and also have a more complex process than solvent refining.
The second group oils have better antioxidant properties and also have a clearer color.
Base Oils of the 3 Group
Over 90% of these oils are saturated. They have less than 0.03 percent sulfur and Its viscosity index is over 120.
This process produces a purer base oil.
Base Oils of the 4 Group
People produce these types of oils through the synthesis process and also present it as polyalphaolefin.
PAO temperature range is wide. They are very resistant to cold or heat.
Group 5 base oils
If there are no base oils in other groups, they also are in Group V Such as silicone, phosphate ester, polyalkylene glycol (PAG), polyester and Biolubes.
People can mix the mentioned oils with other base oils to enhance the properties of the oil.
We can categorize oils as below:
Paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic.
Selection of Base Oil
If you want to choose base oil, you can consider the following:
Its suitability, sufficient information about the base oil and its manufacturing process, considering the temperature range and working conditions and pay attention to lubrication for proper maintenance of equipment.
As a result, the manufacturer complies with specifications provided.