In this article, we are going to provide you with information about application of Bitumen.
It is a black and paste-shaped material that in carbon sulfide and carbon tetrachloride it is completely dissolved, containing 2 Oxygen,11% hydrogen and 87 carbons.
pitch is a derivative of oil and is often produced in oil refineries.
It is also a dense hydrocarbon that requires oil, resin and 5-30% asphalt for it’s hardness.
Based on cross sectional and ongoing processes , they produce it in two ways :direct execution and air blowing.
pitch is solid at ambient temperature at first, but as the temperature rises, it becomes pasty and liquid eventually.
Application of Bitumen
- Insulation of roads, asphalting of streets and insulation of roofs
- Surface coating , penetration macadam , cold mixture machine, surface plate
- mud-off with suspended mixture, reinforced coating, in-situ solid consolidation , dusting
- The important application of bitumen include:Firstly) road construction , secondly) construction ,moreover, pavementing and roof of building as a raw material.
Bitumen is obtained through various processes and people divide it into different types and degrees based on different tests and the type of refinement and performed steps.
Bitumen physical tests
Penetration test so that determining bitumen hardness and viscosity test so that determine the mental slowness o bitumen.
Flammable point test so that heating bitumen and solubility and flexibility test so that measuring bitumen elasticity.
Subjects measure the break point and purity, which include pitch sample weight, impurity weight and its weight.
People measure the strength of asphalt mixtures by the Marshall method and analyze the screening materials.
They extract, test and store bitumen in asphalt mixtures.
The degree of softness for ordinary bitumen is between 60 and 70.
Some of the factors that have made bitumen applications remarkable from the past until now are impermeability, waterproofing and flexibility because it acts like a viscous liquid at 100 to 200 °C and can be combined with other components and has a very high durability after drying.
Bitumen has different types and functions, which we will mention below.
Types of Bitumen and its applications
There is natural pitch under the hills and oil lakes, which is more durable than oil bitumen. They make it over many years from evaporating volatile materials in crude oil.
Natural bitumen also exists in nature in the form of lake bitumen, such as Behan Lake, American Bitumen Lake, or mineral Bitumen.
There are natural bitumens such as Gilsonite, Uintaite, Bentonite and Apatite (asphaltum).
Pertoleum bitumen is obtained by distillation of crude oil , it is the petroleum products of two stages of crude oil distillation in the distillation tower as follows:
- Separating light materials such as gas oil and propane
- Separation of heavy materials such as gasoline and kerosene
And finally, asphaltenes remain and scattered in a fluid material such as grease called molten.
The state of bitumen 60/70 depends on its temperature because the type of crude oil and the refining method are effective in relation to temperature and hardness.
Bitumen vg30 has a degree of permeability of 6 to 7 mm and a degree of softness between 49 and 59, so they consider it to be a heavy bitumen with a semi-hard penetration degree.
The applications of bitumen 60/70 are: construction and repair of roads, hot asphalt for surface coating and as raw material in other products.
Tar bitumen is similar to oil asphalt. Applications of this type of bitumen are: road construction, briquet, carbon electrodes, glaze and coating of all surface coverings, People have faced restrictions due to chemical adhesion and environmental problems.
They extract it from special public ores and oil, according to the origin of formation and the type of process, dividing it into different types as follows:
In this process, hot air at a temperature of 200 to 300 ° C blows into the chamber containing the pitch by perforated pipes.
Blown bitumen has a lower degree of penetration than pure bitumen, it has a higher degree of the softness and less sensitivity to temperature variation.
it has the abbreviation R. People use it as coat roofing sheets, car battery and plastering.
In this process, people combine kerosene or gasoline with Application of bitumen. It is liquid at ambient temperature. The speed of the clamping and tightening depends on the type of solution.
Application of Bituminous mixture are: coating asphalts and macadam and they grade it based on it’s viscosity.
They take Bitumen out of the crater in Trinidad , break the packet of bitumen and harvest Bitumen from below.
This Bitumen has impurities such as general bodies and roots of plants that people convert it into liquid at 160 degrees.
They combine a very small amount of an emulsion material with it and water to make Application of Bitumen emulsions.
Applications of Bitumen emulsion are : cold asphalt in humid environments and insulation .
Because they don’t use oil or flammable solvents in this material , thus there is no risk of ignition during transportation and reduces environmental pollutants.